What causes urine odor?
Urine odor may be described as foul, strong, musty, sweet, or as smelling like sulfur or ammonia. Urine odor may be caused by conditions that are not harmful (benign) or by mild to serious diseases and disorders.
Benign causes of urine odor
Urine odor may be caused by a variety of conditions that are not harmful or not caused by disease including:
Eating certain foods, such as garlic, onions, fish and asparagus. Asparagus can cause a sulfur-like smell of the urine. The unusual odor should go away after these foods have been digested.
Taking vitamins and certain medications can cause an unusual urine odor as a side effect.
Potentially harmful causes of urine odor
Urine odor may be caused by infection, inflammation, or other conditions of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra) or the reproductive organs. Urine odor can also be caused by diseases that affect the urinary tract as well as other organs and body systems.
Causes of urine odor related to the urinary tract include:
Cystitis (bladder inflammation or infection), which can produce a foul urine odor
Prostatitis (inflammation or infection of the prostate gland)
Urinary tract infection, such as a bladder infection or kidney infection (pyelonephritis), which can produce a foul urine odor
Urine odor can be caused by other diseases and conditions including:
Dehydration, which can produce an ammonia-like urine odor
Liver failure, which can produce a musty urine odor
Maple syrup urine disease, which produces a sweet, caramel-like urine odor
Rectal fistula, an abnormal opening or connection between the rectum and other areas of the body
Untreated or poorly treated diabetes, which produces a sweet or sugary urine odor
What are the potential complications of urine odor?
Complications associated with urine odor vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. Complications of untreated or poorly controlled diseases, such as diabetes and liver failure, can be serious and even life threatening. Over time, underlying causes of urine odor can lead to serious complications including:
Septicemia (a blood infection)
Urosepsis (severe urinary tract infection that has spread and led to systemic inflammation called sepsis)
What is urine odor?
Healthy urine may have a mild smell but generally does not have a foul odor. In some cases, an unusual or strong urine odor may be due to benign conditions that are not harmful, such as eating certain foods or taking certain medications. When urine persistently smells bad or has a foul, strong or unusual odor, it may be caused by an underlying disease, disorder or condition.
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What other symptoms might occur with urine odor?
Urine odor may be accompanied by other symptoms, which vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. Symptoms can be due to problems in the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra), the reproductive system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, and other organs and systems of the body.