What are the symptoms of pernicious anemia?
Symptoms of pernicious anemia include general fatigue and weakness, digestive symptoms such as constipation or diarrhea, and neurological symptoms such as confusion, depression, loss of balance, or numbness. Neurological symptoms are serious and may indicate persistent anemia that should be treated promptly.
General symptoms of pernicious anemia
Mild pernicious anemia may occur without noticeable symptoms. In moderate cases of pernicious anemia, general symptoms may include:
- Bleeding gums
- Pale skin or pallor
- Poor concentration
- Shortness of breath
- Weakness (loss of strength)
Digestive system symptoms of pernicious anemia
In addition to causing general symptoms, pernicious anemia can affect the digestive system and lead to symptoms including:
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea with or without vomiting
- Swollen tongue
Symptoms that might indicate a serious condition
In some cases, pernicious anemia can cause serious neurological problems that should be promptly evaluated. Seek prompt medical care if you, or someone you are with, have any of these serious neurological symptoms of pernicious anemia including:
- Loss of balance
- Memory loss
- Numbness or tingling in arms or legs
What is pernicious anemia?
Pernicious anemia is a condition in which the body produces insufficient numbers of red blood cells because the intestines cannot absorb vitamin B12 properly. Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. This disorder occurs due to low levels of a protein called intrinsic factor, which is released by stomach cells and is necessary for the absorption of... Read more about pernicious anemiaintroduction
What causes pernicious anemia?
Pernicious anemia is caused by the lack of a protein called intrinsic factor. This protein, which is produced by cells in the stomach lining, is essential for proper absorption of dietary vitamin B12 in the intestines. Low levels of intrinsic factor are often the result of an autoimmune condition, in which the body produces antibodies that attack its own stomach cells. Rarely, infants are born lacking ability to make intrinsic factor, a condition known as congenital pernicious anemia.... Read more about pernicious anemiacauses
How is pernicious anemia treated?
For most patients with pernicious anemia, the condition is readily treated, and the prognosis is excellent. Treatment of pernicious anemia involves the administration of vitamin B12 injections, typically on a monthly basis. In some cases, taking very high doses of vitamin B12 supplements by mouth may be effective, although in general, low levels of intrinsic factor limit the absorption of oral vitamin B12. Blood transfusions are rarely needed, but they may be used in severe cases.... Read more about pernicious anemiatreatments