What causes joint pain?

Joint pain can be due to fairly mild conditions, such as an overuse injury or sprain that responds well to rest and self-care measures.

Joint pain can also be due to traumatic injuries (dislocations), infections (septic arthritis or rheumatic fever), autoimmune diseases (Sjogren’s syndrome), chronic degenerative conditions (arthritis), or malignancy (cancer). Some of these diseases, disorders or conditions are serious and potentially life-threatening, especially if they are not treated promptly.

Injury-related causes of joint pain

Joint pain may arise from traumatic injuries including:

  • Contusions
  • Joint dislocation
  • Joint separation
  • Ligament sprains
  • Loose fragments of bone or cartilage
  • Overuse injury
  • Repetitive motion
  • Retained foreign body
  • Sports injuries
  • Torn ligament or cartilage

Infectious causes of joint pain

Joint pain may arise from infectious diseases including:

  • Hepatitis
  • Influenza
  • Lyme disease
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Osteomyelitis (bone infection)
  • Rubella
  • Septic, or infectious, arthritis
  • Syphilis
  • Tuberculosis

Degenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune-related causes of joint pain

Joint pain can also be caused by the deterioration of the joint structure, inflammatory conditions, and autoimmune diseases, such as:

  • Ankylosing spondylitis (inflammation of joints between the vertebrae of the spine)
  • Bursitis (inflammation of a bursa sac that cushions a joint)
  • Fibromyalgia (chronic condition that causes pain, stiffness and tenderness)
  • Gout (type of arthritis)
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Psoriasis
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sjogren’s syndrome (an autoimmune disease that affects the mucous membranes and moisture-secreting glands of your eyes and mouth, initially causing dry eyes and mouth)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Tendinitis (inflammation of a tendon)

Other causes of joint pain

Other causes of joint pain include:

  • Bone cancer
  • Hemophilia
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Paget’s disease (abnormal bone formation and turnover)

Questions for diagnosing the cause of joint pain

To diagnose the underlying condition, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your joint pain including:

  • What is the degree of pain?
  • When did the pain start?
  • Is a particular time of day it occurs?
  • How long does it last?
  • Are there any activities that cause the joint pain?
  • Are you experiencing any other sensations, such as numbness, tingling, and “pins-and-needles?”

What are the potential complications of joint pain?

Any complications associated with joint pain can be progressive and vary depending on the underlying cause. Because joint pain can be due to serious diseases, failure to seek treatment can result in complications. It is important to contact your health care provider when you experience any kind of persistent joint pain or other unusual symptoms. Once the underlying cause is diagnosed, it is important to follow the treatment plan outlined by your health care provider to reduce your risk of potential complications related to joint pain, such as:

  • Joint deformity
  • Loss of mobility
  • Paralysis
  • Permanent joint damage
  • Permanent joint immobility
  • Permanent joint instability
  • Permanent loss of sensation
  • Physical disability
  • Poor quality of life
  • Spread of infection

References:

  1. Arthritis Data and Statistics, http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/data_statistics.htm,
  2. Joint pain, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003261.htm,
  3. Tierney LM Jr., Saint S, Whooley MA (Eds.) Current Essentials of Medicine (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011
  4. Kahan S, Miller R, Smith EG (Eds.). In A Page Signs & Symptoms, 2d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Williams, 2009.
INTRODUCTION

What is joint pain?

Joint pain is the sensation of discomfort or soreness in a joint or joints of the body. Joints are the spaces or areas where two or more bones meet, such as the hip, knee, shoulder, elbow and ankle. Joint pain can occur with or without movement and can be severe enough to limit movement. People may describe joint pain as discomfort, inflammation, increased warmth or burning, soreness, stiffness... Read more about joint painintroduction

SYMPTOMS

What other symptoms might occur with joint pain?

Joint pain often occurs in conjunction with other signs and symptoms that vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. Other symptoms can include joint swelling, redness, and fever. Tell your health care provider about any additional symptoms you are experiencing. This information will help you... Read more about joint painsymptoms

Medical Reviewer: William C. Lloyd III, MD, FACS Last Annual Review Date: Sep 6, 2013 Copyright: © Copyright 2014 Health Grades, Inc. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced or reprinted without permission from Health Grades, Inc. Use of this information is governed by the HealthGrades User Agreement.

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