What causes foot swelling?
Injury or damage to any of the structures in the foot can cause foot swelling. Diseases that affect the entire body, such as heart failure, arthritis, or vascular disease, can also lead to foot swelling.
Common injuries that can lead to foot swelling
A number of common injuries to the foot can cause foot swelling. These injuries include:
- Ankle sprain
- Broken foot or toe
- Dislocation of bones
- Insect bite allergy, such as a bee sting, or bite or sting injuries in general
- Sports injuries
- Stress fractures
- Tendon rupture
Inflammatory causes of foot swelling
Inflammation can cause foot swelling restricted to one foot or even a specific location on one foot. Examples of inflammatory causes include:
- Abscess (localized collection of pus due to an infection or a foreign object under the skin)
- Bursitis (inflammation of a bursa sac that cushions a joint)
- Cellulitis (infection of the skin and underlying soft tissue)
- Osteomyelitis (bone infection)
- Papilloma virus infection (plantar warts)
- Paronychia (nail infection)
- Plantar fasciitis (inflammation of the thick, fibrous tissue on the bottom of the foot)
- Skin ulceration
- Tendonitis (inflammation of a tendon)
- Vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels)
Arthritic causes of foot swelling
Inflammation due arthritis can cause foot swelling. Examples of arthritic causes of foot swelling include:
- Gout (a type of arthritis caused by a buildup of uric acid in the joints)
- Osteoarthritis (wearing down of cartilage in the joints)
- Rheumatoid arthritis (chronic autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation)
Situational causes of foot swelling
Foot swelling may result from an activity or situation including:
- Extended airplane or car rides
- Menstrual periods (in women)
- Pregnancy (in women)
- Standing for extended periods
Other causes of foot swelling
Foot swelling can also be caused by problems that affect multiple body systems including:
- Alcohol abuse
- Benign or malignant tumors
- Blood clots
- Buerger’s disease (acute inflammation and clotting of arteries and veins)
- Heart failure
- Medication side effects
- Peripheral artery disease (PAD, also called peripheral vascular disease, or PVD, which is a narrowing of arteries due to a buildup of fat and cholesterol on the artery walls, which limits blood flow to the extremities)
Serious or life-threatening causes of foot swelling
Although life-threatening causes of foot symptoms are rare, all serious injuries, including foot injuries, should be evaluated immediately in an emergency setting. In some cases, foot swelling that is accompanied by serious symptoms, such as a high fever (higher than 101 degrees Fahrenheit); loss of consciousness; or sudden swelling of the face, lips or tongue, may be caused by a serious infection or anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction. These life-threatening conditions should be evaluated immediately in an emergency setting.
Questions for diagnosing the cause of foot swelling
To diagnose your condition, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your foot swelling including:
- How long has your foot been swollen?
- Did you experience an injury to your foot?
- Are you experiencing any other symptoms, such as pain or loss of sensation?
- When do your symptoms occur?
- Are your symptoms worsened or relieved by movement or specific activities?
What are the potential complications of foot swelling?
Because foot swelling can be due to serious diseases, failure to seek treatment can result in serious complications and permanent damage. Once the underlying cause is diagnosed, it is important for you to follow the treatment plan that you and your health care professional design specifically for you to reduce the risk of potential complications including:
- Difficulty walking
- Heart failure
- Serious infections and gangrene
- Severe discomfort or pain
- Spread of cancer
- Spread of infection
Foot injuries and disorders. Medline Plus, a service of the National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/footinjuriesanddisorders.html. Accessed May 10, 2011.
Foot problems. FamilyDoctor.org. http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/tools/symptom/544.html. Accessed May 10, 2011.
What is foot swelling?
Foot swelling is characterized by a buildup of fluid in your foot. A collection of excess fluid anywhere in the body is known as edema. Your entire foot or a portion of your foot may appear larger than normal. The swelling may be painless or accompanied by a variety of symptoms, including bruising, itchiness, pain,