What causes flushing?
Flushing, also called ‘plethora’ occurs when the blood vessels beneath the skin surface become dilated for any reason. This process can occur as a normal response to intense emotions, such as embarrassment, anger, guilt, anxiety or stress. Flushing is also a normal response to physical stimuli or events, such as sexual arousal, high environmental temperatures, exercise, or consumption of certain foods and alcohol.
Everyday causes of flushing
Flushing is the body’s way of responding to many everyday conditions or normal body states including:
- Alcohol consumption
- High environmental temperatures
- Medication side effects
- Rapid changes in temperature
- Sexual arousal
- Spicy foods
- Strong emotions
Other causes of flushing
Flushing can also be caused by medical conditions that are localized to the skin or may affect the entire body including:
- Carcinoid syndrome (group of symptoms caused by a tumor that secretes hormones and other biologically active substances)
- Polycythemia (increased amount of circulating red blood cells)
- Heat stroke or heat exhaustion
- Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
- Mastocytosis (accumulation of a type of inflammatory cells, called mast cells, in body tissues)
Allergic causes of flushing
Flushing may accompany allergic reactions including:
- Drug allergy, such as to penicillin or codeine
- Food allergy
- Hay fever or allergic reaction to animal dander, dust, cosmetics or pollen
- Insect allergy, such as to a bee sting
Serious or life-threatening causes of flushing
In some cases, flushing may be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition that should be immediately evaluated in an emergency setting. These conditions include:
- Anaphylaxis (life-threatening allergic reaction)
- Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
Questions for diagnosing the cause of flushing
To diagnose your condition, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your flushing including:
- How long has your flushing been present?
- Are you experiencing any other symptoms?
- How often do you experience flushing?
- Is the flushing worse after you consume alcohol or specific foods?
- Is your flushing becoming worse or more frequent?
What are the potential complications of flushing?
Flushing is seldom a symptom of a serious medical condition. Occasionally, flushing is seen in diseases that may have serious or long-term complications. For example, carcinoid syndrome, a rare cause of flushing, can lead to complications including:
- Gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction
- Weight loss
Flushing may also be a symptom of other serious or life-threatening medical conditions, such as anaphylactic shock or heart attack. Left untreated, these conditions can lead to complications including:
- Heart failure
- Skin blushing/flushing. Medline Plus, a service of the National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003241.htm.
- Rosacea. Medline Plus, a service of the National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000879.htm.
- Izikson L, English JC 3rd, Zirwas MJ. The flushing patient: differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55:193.
- Collins RD. Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Williams, 2012.
What is flushing?
Flushing is an involuntary, temporary reddening of the skin, usually of the face. Facial flushing may be accompanied by flushing of the neck or chest. In general, flushing results from dilation of the blood vessels beneath the skin surface. Although flushing is similar to blushing, flushing typically refers to a more pronounced redness of the face than blushing.
In most cases, fl... Read more about flushingintroduction
What other symptoms might occur with flushing?
Flushing may be accompanied by other symptoms, depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition that causes it. Symptoms that frequently affect the skin, such as flushing, may also involve other body systems.