What causes face swelling?

Face swelling can be caused by inflammation, allergies, trauma or infection in the tissues of the face. Facial swelling can be due to relatively mild conditions, such as a sinus infection, or a serious or life-threatening condition, such as analphylactic shock, that should be immediately evaluated in an emergency setting.

Infectious causes of face swelling

Facial swelling can be due to a variety of infections including:

  • Bacterial or viral conjunctivitis (noticeable swelling around the eyes)

  • Cellulitis (skin infection)

  • Mumps

  • Orbital cellulitis (acute infection of the area surrounding the eye)

  • Sinus infection or sinusitis

  • Stye (also called a hordeolum, infected oil gland of the eyelid)

  • Tooth abscess

Allergic causes of face swelling

Facial swelling can be due to mild to serious allergic reactions, such as:

  • Insect bite allergy, such as from a bee sting

  • Hay fever or allergic reaction from animal dander, dust, cosmetics, or pollen

  • Drug allergy, such as to penicillin or codeine

  • Anaphylactic allergic reaction to any substance

Traumatic causes of face swelling

Facial swelling can arise from injury or trauma, such as:

  • Facial burn or other trauma

  • Surgery on the face

  • Oral surgery

Other causes of face swelling

Facial swelling can be due to various other conditions including:

  • Blood transfusion reaction

  • Cancer of the face

  • Fluid retention, such as during pregnancy

  • Hereditary angioedema

  • Obesity

  • Organ failure, such as heart, liver or kidney failure

  • Pre-eclampsia (a serious condition marked by swelling, high blood pressure, and protein in the urine that can develop during pregnancy)

  • Severe malnutrition

Questions for diagnosing the cause of face swelling

To diagnose the underlying cause of face swelling, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your symptoms. You can best help your health care practitioner in diagnosing the underlying cause of face swelling by providing complete answers to these questions:

  • What is the exact location of the swelling?

  • Describe the swelling. When did the swelling start? Does it come and go or is it constant?

  • Did you eat any foods or come in contact with any unusual substances preceding the swelling?

  • Are you are experiencing any pain, shortness of breath, or other symptoms?

  • Provide your full medical history, including all medical conditions, surgeries and treatments, family history, and a complete list of the medications and dietary supplements that you take.

What are the potential complications of face swelling?

Complications associated with facial swelling can be progressive and vary depending on the underlying cause. Because facial swelling can be due to serious diseases, failure to seek treatment can result in complications and permanent damage. It is important to visit your health care provider when you experience swelling or other unusual symptoms. Once the underlying cause is diagnosed, following the treatment plan outlined by your doctor can lower your risk for potential complications of these conditions including:

  • Difficulty breathing or respiratory arrest from anaphylactic shock

  • Loss of sight from orbital cellulitis

  • Skin or other tissue removal, such as due a serious infection or malignant condition

  • Spread of infection to other parts of the body, including the blood
INTRODUCTION

What is face swelling?

Face swelling is the enlargement or distention of the face due to fluid buildup or inflammation in the facial tissues. Swelling can occur anywhere on the face, but it is most noticeable on the lips, cheeks and eyelids. Swelling can also extend to the neck region. Facial swelling may also be referred to as facial edema.

SYMPTOMS

What other symptoms might occur with face swelling?

Face swelling may occur with other symptoms depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. For example, swelling over the cheeks and eyes can be a sign of sinusitis that is often accompanied by pain and congestion.

Symptoms that may occur along with face swelling

Face swelling may occur with other symptoms including:

Medical Reviewer: Cynthia Haines, MD Last Annual Review Date: Aug 2, 2013 Copyright: © Copyright 2014 Health Grades, Inc. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced or reprinted without permission from Health Grades, Inc. Use of this information is governed by the HealthGrades User Agreement.

This Article is Filed Under: Infections and Contagious Diseases, Sinusitis


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