What causes eye swelling?
Eye swelling results from excess fluid in the soft tissues surrounding the eye. Allergic reactions are a common cause of eye swelling. Such reactions may be caused by pollen (hay fever), animal dander, foods, or medicines.
Infections that cause inflammation of the eyelids or the conjunctiva (surface) of the eye are also common causes of swollen eyes. Infections may occur in one or both eyes and may be caused by viruses or bacteria. The condition often called pink eye is a contagious form of conjunctivitis caused by a viral infection. Cysts and infections of the small glands surrounding the eye and eyelashes are causes of localized bumps or swelling of the eye area. Swelling can also result from injury of the bones or tissues around or in the eyes.
Allergic causes of eye swelling
Allergic reactions are a common cause of eye swelling. Examples include:
- Drug allergy, such as to penicillin or codeine
- Food allergies (allergic reaction to certain foods)
- Hay fever or allergic reaction to animal dander, dust, cosmetics or pollen
- Insect bite allergy, such as to a bee sting
Inflammatory causes of eye swelling
Cysts, infections or irritation can cause inflammation in different structures of the eye, and many of these conditions lead to swelling of the eyes including:
- Bacterial infection
- Blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margin)
- Chalazion (inflammation of a blocked oil gland in the eyelid margin)
- Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the eye surface)
- Corneal abrasion or ulcer
- Periorbital cellulitis (infection of the eyelids or other soft tissue around the eyes)
- Sinusitis (inflammation or infection of the sinuses)
- Stye or hordeolum (localized bacterial infection of an oil gland or eyelash follicle in the eyelid margin)
- Viral infection
Traumatic causes of eye swelling
Eye swelling can also be caused by trauma to any part of the eye or eye socket (orbit). Examples include:
- Blunt trauma
- Corneal abrasion or ulcer
- Foreign objects or materials in the eye, such as dirt or soap
- Head injury
- Hematoma (collection of blood in body tissues)
- Insect bite or sting
- Orbital bone fracture (fracture of the bone surrounding the eye)
Serious or life-threatening causes of eye swelling
In some cases, facial and eye swelling may be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition that should be immediately evaluated in an emergency setting. Examples include:
- Anaphylaxis (life-threatening allergic reaction)
- Orbital cellulitis (invasive infection of the soft tissues around the eye)
- Skull fracture
Questions for diagnosing the cause of eye swelling
To diagnose your condition, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your eye swelling including:
- How long has your eye swelling been present?
- Did you experience an injury to your eye or face?
- Are you experiencing any other symptoms, such as pain or loss of sensation?
- Is your vision affected by the eye swelling?
What are the potential complications of eye swelling?
Left untreated, some infections and inflammatory conditions of the eyes can lead to serious complications including:
- Cellulitis (infection of the skin and underlying tissues)
- Encephalitis (inflammation and swelling of the brain due to a viral infection or other causes)
- Meningitis (infection or inflammation of the sac around the brain and spinal cord)
- Vision disturbances
- Vision loss
What is eye swelling?
Swelling around the eyes is a common symptom of allergy, infection, inflammation, or even physical irritation. The medical term for swelling around the eyes is periorbital edema. Eye swelling results from excess fluid (edema) in the soft tissues surrounding the eyes. It may occur in conditions affecting the eye area itself or in association with more generalized conditions, such as colds or hay fever. Only in rare situations do the eyeballs themselves enlarge or swell.... Read more about eye swellingintroduction