What causes enlarged liver and spleen?
Enlarged liver and spleen has a variety of causes including infections, blood disorders, liver disease, and cancers.
Infectious causes of enlarged liver and spleen
Enlarged liver and spleen may be caused by infections including:
- Bacterial infections
- Cat scratch disease (bacterial infection)
- Epstein-Barr virus infection (infectious mononucleosis)
- Infections caused by parasites such as malaria
Hepatic (liver) causes of enlarged liver and spleen
Enlarged liver and spleen can also be caused by hepatic (liver) disorders including:
- Biliary atresia (blockage in the tubes that transport bile from the gallbladder to the liver)
- Cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (tumor of the liver cells)
- Portal hypertension (high blood pressure in the portal vein, which supplies blood to the liver)
- Portal vein obstruction (obstruction of the portal vein, which supplies blood to the liver)
- Sclerosing cholangitis (bile duct blockage)
- Steatosis (fatty liver)
- Viral hepatitis
Other medical causes of enlarged liver and spleen
Enlarged liver and spleen can also be caused by medical conditions including:
- Amyloidosis (rare immune-related disorder characterized by protein buildup in organs and tissues that can cause serious complications)
- Congestive heart failure (deterioration of the heart’s ability to pump blood)
- Cystic fibrosis (congenital respiratory disorder)
- Glycogen storage disorder or other rare metabolic diseases
- Sarcoidosis (inflammatory disease most commonly affecting the lungs, skin and eyes)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (disorder in which the body attacks its own healthy cells and tissues)
Serious or life-threatening causes of enlarged liver and spleen
In some cases, enlarged liver and spleen may be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition that should be immediately evaluated by a health care provider. These include:
- Acute hepatitis (liver inflammation)
- Leukemia (cancer of the blood or bone marrow)
- Sickle cell crisis
Questions for diagnosing the cause of enlarged liver and spleen
To diagnose your condition, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your enlarged liver and spleen including:
- Do you have gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting or abdominal pain?
- Does your abdomen feel full or bloated?
- Have you observed any jaundice?
- Do you have any chronic medical conditions?
- What color is your stool?
- What medications do you take?
What are the potential complications of enlarged liver and spleen?
Because enlarged liver and spleen can be due to serious diseases, failure to seek treatment can result in serious complications and permanent damage. Once the underlying cause is diagnosed, it is important for you to follow the treatment plan that you and your health care professional design specifically for you to reduce the risk of potential complications including:
- Liver failure
- Spread of cancer
- Spread of infection
- Hepatomegaly. Medline Plus, a service of the National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003275.htm.
- Splenomegaly. Medline Plus, a service of the National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003276.htm.
- Collins RD. Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Williams, 2012.
- Kahan S, Miller R, Smith EG (Eds.). In A Page Signs & Symptoms, 2d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Williams, 2009.
What is enlarged liver and spleen?
An enlarged liver and spleen, medically known as hepatosplenomegaly, occur when the liver and spleen swell beyond their normal size.
The liver is a large accessory organ in the digestive system, responsible for a number of functions including bile secretion to break down food, storage of iron and vitamins, production of blood proteins, and elimination of old red blood cells. Many ... Read more about enlarged liver and spleenintroduction
What other symptoms might occur with enlarged liver and spleen?
Hepatosplenomegaly may accompany other symptoms, which vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. The condition may not always present with symptoms, but may be detected by your health care provider upon examination.